Stuffman and JaimieB hit the nail on the head. By far the best way to learn individual notes is to.. work with them individually. Just as we learn letters before words before sentences and before proper grammar, so too is it best to learn notes individually, then accords, and then fully dissect a scent. The problem is, it's more like painting than constructing sentences, in that each individual note is a color and once blended, it is impossible to separate the two notes out into their individual parts. Sure, if you blend a heap of red with a dash of white, you'll get a light red, but at some point it becomes pink - neither red nor white but a new color. So too, do oils. A drop of jasmine alongside linden blossom, citrus and magnolia leaves gave the composition a distinctly berry'ish smell - it was nigh unidentifiable as jasmine grandiflorum. Prior to that, the composition had a citric tea quality, and now it was more like blackberry tea. If that particular blend were to be marketed the marketing team may decide on notes of:
blackberry, tea leaves,
While neither oil was actually present there, at all. It is best to keep this in mind when reading a fragrance pyramid. You may smell something that is not listed - that doesn't mean it's not present. You may not smell what is listed - just because it is listed doesn't mean it is there. Take note of how those who explain every note in their review of fragrances with an accompanying pyramid often are at a loss for words when reviewing a fragrance with no notes or pyramid listed. It's a case of.. people smell what they think they smell. I'm not going to say someone will mistake patchouli for say, texas cedar - but for someone to think guaiacwood is actually a tea note? Or to mistake jamarosa root oil for geranium? Wouldn't surprise me at all.