For a very detailed descriptions go here
A lot of these descirptions came from the perfumescourt.com but it's not a very easy to read website.
There is a lot of perfume and it helps to know what you like so you can explore scents that are like it. There are many ways to divide the world of perfumes and it seems every year a new one is added.
In general you can classify fragrances under a group or per note, and you can combine them as well. For instance I love fragrances containing jasmine whether the perfume is a floral, or oriental floral.
Here is a list of a few groups or families, they also combine together to make a fruit-floral perfume. It means that the perfume has elements from both groups.
Chypre – Based on a woody, mossy, floral accord, which can include leathery or fruity notes as well. Chypre perfumes have a rich and lingering scent. Chypre by Coty enjoyed such success in 1917 that “chypre” is now a generic name for a whole category of classic perfumes. The compositions are based on oakmoss, ciste-labdanun, patchouli and bergamot accords. The richness of chypre notes mixes wonderfully with fruity or floral notes. This family is made up of distinguished, instantly recognizable fragrances.
Floral – floral notes, this can be a solifleur where a single flower takes the stage or a blend of flowers. Flower scents have their own aspect or wuality for instance Iris is know to give a powdery effect in the right combination..
Citrus – Each perfume in this family is primarily composed of citrus scents such as bergamot, lemon, orange, tangerine and grapefruit
Aromatic – aromatic notes, such as thyme, rosemary, tarragon or mint. Examples include: Calvin Klein CK One, Rochas Eau de Rochas, and Lancome O de Lancome.
Aldehyde – Animal, powdery or slightly woody notes often enhance the floral bouquet. The top note is a marriage of aldehydes and hesperidia. This sub-family came into existence with the creation of Chanel No. 5, the first floral-aldehydic perfume with an unusually high amount of aldehydes. Examples include: Chanel No. 5 and Estee Lauder White Linen.
Aquatic – marine notes, shower fresh scents.
Green – Green notes can add a sharper freshness, think grasses or pines.
Fruity – Since 1995, new fruity notes have blossomed in the world of perfumery. Among these notes are apricot, raspberry, lychee and apple. More are added every year and you can determine a certain trend in fruit perfumes. Then you suddenly smell a certain fruity note everywhere. This can coincide with the discovery of a new scent molecule.
Fougere - Timeless aromatic notes blend with a traditional fougere accord characterized by lavender, woody, coumarin, geranium and oak moss notes.
Woody Musk – this family includes fragrances with an additional woody and/or musky note, which gives a richer. This is often in combination of a a floral as well.
Oriental – Also known as “amber” fragrances – stand out because of their unique blend of warmth and sensuality. They draw their richness from heady substances like musk, vanilla and precious woods, often associated with exotic floral and spicy scents.
Spicy – Spices such as cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg
Vanilla – Vanilla and classical amber notes accentuate the original
Woody – Warm and opulent notes like amber and sandalwood, or dry notes like cedar are added to the Oriental accord to further accentuate it. Examples include: Bulgari Eau Parfumee au The Rouge, Lancome Hypnose, Thierry Mugler Alien, Guerlain Samsar and Molinard Habanita.