Welcome to the board. I am likely not the best person to comment on the aforementioned simply because..to this day, nearly a year into my passion.. I have trouble distinguishing various notes. The more obvious ones, I can pinpoint. (ie, vanilla, sandalwood, cedar, fruit notes, patchouli) but when it comes to distinguishing different florals and spices I am certainly not as good. I think a lot of it comes with experience. To elaborate, after sampling or owning many fragrances you start to notice similarities. For example, when sniffing Azzaro Visit and Gucci PH it becomes pretty evident that there are some strong commonalities between the two. Upon researching their note pyramids, you can see which notes are similar, and which combos create comparible "smells". Also, keep in mind that one cologne's take on a note like "veviter" could be quite different than another's. Additionally, a rose scent comes in very many forms... and so on.
I suppose one way to familiarize yourself with notes would be to sniff oils or extracts of the various ingredients seperately in order to get a better guage on it. Other than that, I can't really see what one can do proactively, other that indulge your passion for fragrances through samples, decants and bottle purchasing. Wine testing skills are developed over time, as is a fine-tuned nose. That being said, the ability to isolate and recognize fragrance notes will come more naturally to some than others. We all have different sensory levels. Some people have better vision, weaker hearing.. etc.. etc.. anyway, you get the point.
I think it's exciting that you are so interested in exploring the world of fragrances and I wish you best of luck in training your nose to detect the subtle nuances of fragrance.
Let us know what you discover.