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  1. #1
    Basenotes Member elivasiliou's Avatar
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    Default Blending for use in candles

    Hi everyone, after some advice about adapting/creating formulas for use in candles.

    I'm finding it really hard to find info on a basic approach for blending for candles vs perfume.

    Google just turns up page upon page of useless advice to 'put 50 drops of essential oils' into wax or info for people who want to buy off the shelf FOs.

    I can find out suitability of individual ACs and EOs for candles, however, it's help on blending basics that I need. For example, with perfume I start off with a 25/30/45 top/heart/base ratio and work from there. With candle blends, should I be much heavier on base notes? Should I use far fewer different materials than I might in a perfume?

    Also, how can I evaluate blends without putting them into wax? It's easy to spritz perfume on skin and evaluate. But are there any cheats to getting a more accurate idea of how a blend might perform in wax? e.g. trying it in an oil burner.

    Any helpful hints or pointers to resources would be much appreciated.
    New explorer into DIY perfumery. I blog my fragrant ramblings at Nose Dives.

  2. #2

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    Read this: http://www.basenotes.net/threads/452...ghlight=candle

    The wax choice really impacts the aroma the most. Soy wax depresses top and heart notes. Paraffin doesn't depress them as much and has better hot throw. Max concentration for most soy waxes is 10%, and for paraffin it depends on the type but it's around the same maybe slightly less (one of the said benefits of paraffin is using less oil but having better performance).

    In general, you want to increase the amount of top/mid notes in relation to the base notes from a formula made for perfume (55/20/25 base/mid/top Jean Carles ratio). Try decreasing the base by 20% and increasing the mid and top by 20% to start (maybe even 50%). Unfortunately, besides having experience, there is no way to test what it will smell like in wax until you actually do it. Fragrance houses like Firmenich/IFF/Givaudan sometimes list their ACs performance in candles and their average concentrations in them on the fact sheets on their website inventory, those are worth investigating when making your fragrance formula.

    Also, do not use any DPG or anything that is diluted with it, it is insoluble in wax and will bleed out. Augeo Clean Multi however, is soluble and is an acceptable dilutant/carrier along with Benzyl Benzoate, DEP, and Dioctyl Adipate (noted as being the best performing carrier). Last but definitely not least, do not use any alcohol because it is flammable.

    www.candlescience.com is a great resource for information and buying materials.

    Currently wearing: Eau de Campagne by Sisley

  3. #3
    Basenotes Member elivasiliou's Avatar
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    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    Hi Runstile, thank you so much, that's really helpful. Of course, I'll have to experiment and test everything a million times over - but with having to test wicks/containers/everything else, a starting point like knowing to increase top/mid notes ratios will save me a lot of time!

    I'm going to be using sasolwax (paraffin) for the superior hot throw. I know soy seems to be more fashionable, but it's all about the fragrance for me.

    Also, thanks for the tip re diluting in augeo - I knew I could use DEP and benzyl benzoate, but don't have any of that at the moment. I do have Augeo in supply though. That's great, as so many of the ACs I want to test are solids - vanillin, ambroxan, coumarin etc - and I'd resigned myself to having to experiment just with liquids for now.

    A perfect answer. Thank you. Love this forum.
    New explorer into DIY perfumery. I blog my fragrant ramblings at Nose Dives.

  4. #4

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    You're welcome!

    Those solids will readily dissolve in most liquid ACs btw, no need to dilute really unless you want to. Also, consider replacing vanillin w ethyl vanillin (at 1/3 the amount, it is stronger) or other vanillic materials because vanillin will eventually discolor your wax (to brown).

    P.S. Not sure if you've used the wick selector page on Candlescience, but it will help you determine the ideal set up for your vessel size.

    Currently wearing: Eau de Campagne by Sisley

  5. #5

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    *sneaks in and also devours runstile's advice* This is incredibly helpful. I've also delved into the world of candlemaking recently and it never occurred to me to change the balance of top/middle/base notes. >_>;

    I second the advice to use candlescience's wick selector to find the right wick. I recently bought a larger candle jar size than I usually use and, in my eagerness to test out a new wax formula, I stupidly used a too-small wick. The wax keeps pooling. I'm going to have to melt it and put in a new wick. This page also seems to have some advice for beginners on choosing the right wick: https://craftycandlesupplies.com.au/...r_soy_candles/

  6. #6
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    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    runstile, thank you! Your advice here is amazing.


    Jumping into this candle thread with two questions:

    –Are most aromachemicals used in perfumery compatible with being burned in a candle? Is there a section of the data sheets I should be looking at for information on this?

    –I have been using a beeswax absolute that came at 60% dilution in DPG. Can this be used in candle wax?


    Many thanks~ ~ ~

  7. #7

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    Quote Originally Posted by mattmorris View Post

    –Are most aromachemicals used in perfumery compatible with being burned in a candle? Is there a section of the data sheets I should be looking at for information on this?
    Ive been searching everywhere I can find, but have yet to find simple answers. I think we need to be looking at the flashpoint. The wax will get to around 185F or 85C during the process of making the candle, then someone will light the flame, and I do not know how that changes the temp, but the fragrance oils you can buy ready for candlemaking list 200 degree F flashpoint.

    I found that we can search up things on Perfumers World and it will tell you their rating on individual suitability in certain products, including candles. They don’t have beeswax absolute listed, but elsewhere here on basenotes, someone said absolutes in general don’t work well for candles.

    Yesterday I looked up every single one of my aromachemicals on Perfumers World and 99% of them are rated 4 out of 10 for “stability issues” when used in candles. (But most of their “Fleuressence” blends mysteriously rate 8 or 9. I don’t understand at all.) For two days I have searched and only I find ye old “just have to experiment.”
    Last edited by Pseudo; 21st May 2019 at 10:38 PM.

  8. #8
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    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    There does not yet seem to be a good reference for candle usage of materials.
    Paul Kiler
    PK Perfumes
    http://www.PKPERFUMES.com
    In addition to Our own PK line, we make Custom Bespoke Perfumes, perfumes for Entrepreneurs needing scents for perfumes or products, Custom Wedding Perfumes, and even Special Event Perfumes.

  9. #9

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    There isn't a database like TGSC unfortunately. Things like limonene burn off and create soot and potentially small amounts formaldehyde (there are studies on both sides of the argument) so you really shouldn't use a ton of natural citruses or anything with high amounts of it. I use folded citrus oils, they are more concentrated so you can use less. Perfumer's World has charts on the right column when you do an ingredient search that vaguely show it's performance in candles, but usually all I see is a 9 or a 4 (on scale of 1-10). IFF, Givaudan, and Firmenich's marketing sheets generally show performance for their ingredients in candles/burning effectiveness, and Firmenich actually shows the % use recommended there. Everything else is really up to you!

    P.S.

    If you have an ingredient that's been diluted in alcohol or contains a small amount of it, the alcohol will basically evaporate when you blend into the melted wax, but you don't want to use a lot in general.

    Currently wearing: Eau de Campagne by Sisley

  10. #10

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    Thank you. It is good to know that alcohol from dilutions will simply evaporate in the wax, I wondered about that. Thank you also for confirming there seems not to be a database relevant to candlemaking and aromachemicals.

    So there is no convenient database. Does anyone know of any texts available that discuss fragrance design parameters, for candlemaking specifically?

    I am slowly piecing together clues. (aldehydes: good. Absolutes: not good) Any resources like that would be great as I begin. I am also taking advice to search up with manufacturer individually, but guidelines like these are very helpful. I wish I had saved every link I found so far to post here, I have begun it and I intend to compile for future people.
    Last edited by Pseudo; 22nd May 2019 at 09:17 PM.

  11. #11

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    Another recommendation but I haven't bought any (yet), Perfumer's Apprentice sells fragrance oils (specifically the premium ones) that were intended for use in candles, I asked them about them and they said they were originally formulated for candle use.

    Currently wearing: Eau de Campagne by Sisley

  12. #12

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    Quote Originally Posted by runstile View Post
    Another recommendation but I haven't bought any (yet), Perfumer's Apprentice sells fragrance oils (specifically the premium ones) that were intended for use in candles, I asked them about them and they said they were originally formulated for candle use.
    Hmm. It feels like a cop-out. But I would like to see GCMS on these or any fragrance oils formulated for candles. Have you ever encountered any?

    I am making “wax melts” so far for tests, to minimize impact from any errors I might make with wax and wick. I don’t yet know the what if any performance differences exist between these and flame-lit candles but so far it seems wax melts are the way to go for making all these tests.

  13. #13
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    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    runstile + pseudo + paul,

    it's at least reassuring that we're finding similar limitations on what information is available. i think the point about flashpoint that pseudo makes is right on.
    obviously most candles in the market are made with aroma chemicals. just passing the candle aisle in target, and the cashmeran, vanillin, etc are punchy and penetrating. so in general, i think it's all going to be fine. these 'wax melt' tests are probably my next step too.


    thanks as always for the amazing braintrust and cooperation this forum serves as. <3

  14. #14

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    I found this handy info about candle temps.

    Dark brown/red inner part of the flame: 1000°C (1830°F). Red/orange inner part of the flame: 800°C (1470°F). Body of the candle: 40–50°C (104–122°F). Melted pool of wax on top of the candle: 60°C (140°F).

    https://www.explainthatstuff.com/candles.html
    Also I learned from a soap maker that perhaps “flashpoint” is not the important figure, the more useful reference is boiling point. The boiling point may be the temperature at which the fragrance evaporates. Makes sense.

  15. #15

    Default Re: Blending for use in candles

    PA will give you an SDS on the premium fragrance oils by request, just shoot them an email. This lists all of the required allergenic/"hazardous" materials and their concentration ranges.

    Currently wearing: Eau de Campagne by Sisley




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